Development of a List of Affective Competencies and Behavioral Indicators for Physical and Occupational Therapy

  • Ma. Liezel Bumanglag Emilio Aguinaldo College, Manila, Philippines
Keywords: Affective competencies, attitudes and values, Occupational Therapy, Physical Therapy


Background: Affective competencies, as demonstrated by behaviors acted upon by people, are essential components in providing optimal care and receiving trust from patients and clients of physical (PTs) and occupational therapists (OTs). These, along with knowledge and skills, have to be developed early on in the educational system. If these are generated, PT and OT schools will be guided on how to inculcate them in their respective outcomes-based education designs, from planning to assessment. Assessment of the manifestation of these affective competencies is a challenge to educators; thus, the need for behavioral indicators for each. This study developed a list of the necessary affective competencies and their behavioral indicators for PT and OT.

Methodology: A sample of experts from different fields of practice in the PT and OT population groups underwent three rounds of generation and refinement to create a list of affective competencies and their consequent behavioral indicators. To come up with the final list, testing for group consistency was done using Cronbach’s alpha and mean ranks.

Results: Forty-two PT and twenty-five OT experts generated the final list of affective competencies and their behavioral indicators. For the PTs, those competencies are accountability, adaptability/flexibility, altruism, compassion, creativity, diligence, effective communication, ethical reasoning, excellence, honesty, initiative, passion, patience, perseverance, professionalism, reliability, responsibility, self-reflection, and time management. For the OTs, these are altruism, compassion, conscientiousness, creativity, inquisitiveness, professionalism, and responsibility.

Conclusion: The list of affective competencies and behavioral indicators generated by experts in this study were mostly reflective of the existing code of ethics of the professions, with some not stated explicitly but were reflected as such in the behavioral indicators of the other competencies.


Download data is not yet available.


American Physical Therapy Association. (2012). Professionalism in PhysicalTherapy: Core Values. Retrieved from

Andres, T. (1980). Understanding Values. Philippines: Tomas D. Andres and New Day Publishers.

Antonio, C., Patdu, I. & Marcelo, A. (2016). Health information privacy in the Philippines: Trends and challenges in policy and practice. Acta MedicaPhilippina, 50, 4, 223-236. Bork, C. [Ed]. (1993). Research in Physical Therapy. Pennsylvania: J. B. Lippincott Company.

Campbell, A., Chin, J. & Voo, T. C. (2007). How can we know that ethics education produces ethical doctors? Medical Teacher, 29, 5, 431-436. doi: 10.1080/01421590701504077

Commission on Higher Education. (2012). CHED Memorandum Order No. 46, Series of 2012. Retrieved from

Commission on Higher Education. (2017). CHED Memorandum Order No. 52, Series of 2017. Retrieved from

Commission on Higher Education. (2017). CHED Memorandum Order No. 55, Series of 2017. Retrieved from

Cuyegkeng, M. A., Detoya, G., Lapitan Jr., L., Laurito, A., Lorenzo, F. M.,...Vicencio, E. (2013). CHED Implementation Handbook for OBE and ISA. Retrieved from

Edge, R. & Groves, J. R. (1999). Ethics of Health Care, 2nd ed. Singapore: Thomson Learning Asia.

Fraenkel, J., Wallen, N. & Hyun, H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research In Education, 8th ed. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Galbraith, R. & Jones, T. (1976). Moral Reasoning: A Teaching Handbook for Adapting Kohlberg to the Classroom.

Habibi, A., Sarafrazi, A., & Izadyar, S. (2014). Delphi technique theoretical framework in qualitative research. The International Journal of Engineering and Science, 3, 4, 8-13.Halligan, A. (2008). The importance of values in healthcare. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 101 (10), 480-481. doi: 10.1258%2Fjrsm.08k019

Harmin, M., Kirschenbaum, H. & Simon, S. (1973). Clarifying Values through subject Matter. Minneapolis: Winston Press.

Henerson, M., Morris, L. & Fitz-Gibbon, C. (1987). How to Measure Attitudes. California: SAGE Publications.

Kasar, J. & Muscari, M. (2000). A conceptual model for the development of Professional behaviors in occupational therapists. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67, (1), 42-50. doi: 10.1177/000841740006700107

Lockwood, A. (2009). The Case for Character Education: A Developmental Approach. New York: Teachers College Press.

Miller, M. D., Linn, R. & Gronlund, N. (2009). Measurement and Assessment in Teaching, 10th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Philippine Academy of Occupational Therapists, Inc. (2000). Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

Philippine Academy of Occupational Therapists, Inc. (2017). Occupational Therapy Standards of Practice. Retrieved from

Philippine Physical Therapy Association. (2000). Code of Ethics of the Philippine Physical Therapy Association. Retrieved from

Physical Therapy Association. (2000). Standards of Practice for Physical Therapy in the Philippines. Retrieved from

Raths, L., Harmin, M. & Simon, S. (1966). Values and Teaching. Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co.

Richey, R. (1994). Developmental Research: The Definition and Scope. Paper presented at Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the 1994 National Convention of the Association for Educational Communication and Technology. Nashville.

Ries, E. (2013, September). The Power of Professionalism. PT in Motion Magazine, 16-24.

Sana, E. [Ed]. (2010). Teaching and Learning in the Health Sciences. Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press.

Schwitzgebel, R. & Kolb, D. (1974). Changing Human Behavior: Principles of Planned Intervention. USA: McGraw-Hill.

Shaw, M. & Wright, J. (1967). Scales for the Measurement of Attitudes. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company.

Tavakol, M. & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53-55. doi: 10.5116%2Fijme.4dfb.8dfd

Teijilingen, E. & Hundley, V. (2001). The importance of pilot studies. Social Research Update, 35. Retrieved from

Wilkinson, T., Wade, W. & Knock, L. D. (2009). A blueprint to assess professionalism: Results of a systematic review. Academic Medicine, 84(5), 551-558. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e31819fbaa2

How to Cite
Bumanglag, M. L. (2019). Development of a List of Affective Competencies and Behavioral Indicators for Physical and Occupational Therapy. Journal of Health and Caring Sciences, 1(1), 3-20.